Genetic studies of Orthoptera and Hemiptera insects

The current systematic and phylogenetic studies of insects are based on results obtained from morphological, ecological, cytogenetical, and molecular analyses (Figs 1-6). The Orthoptera is a well-known order among insects; however, the systematic position of many taxa has not been clearly solved. Studies on the genetic differentiation of katydids from the superfamily Tettigonioidea (Fig. 1) are being undertaken with special reference to species groups and species belonging to several subfamilies from Palaearctic and eastern Africa. Population studies on the brachypterous grasshopper (Acridoidea) and polytypic species Podisma sapporensis from Hokkaido (Japan) are also being conducted due to its high chromosome polymorphism. This species can be treated as a model organism for genetic studies. Cytogenetic studies of hemipterans (Hemiptera) concern the superfamily Psylloidea (Sternorrhyncha) and selected families of Auchenorrhyncha. The main aim of these studies is to explain the mechanisms leading to karyotype differentiation within and among the studied taxa. Chromosomal variation reflects directions of genome evolution and is suitable for the taxonomic classification of these groups of insects (Fig. 5). Cytogenetic and genetic studies of Philaenus have explained the phylogenetic relationship among species belonging to this genus (Fig. 6). Detailed studies of the Palaearctic species Philaenus spumarius have shown its high genetic differentiation.

Physical maps of chromosomes are created using suitable markers (Figs 2a-c; 3c,d; 4d) to show rearrangements of chromosomes and the evolution of genomes in particular taxa. The results are suitable for (1) an explanation of phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between particular taxa (Fig. 3a,b); (2) the verification of taxonomic ranks on species and higher taxonomic levels; and (3) a description of new species (Fig. 3a-d). Genetic data analyzed along with morphological, bioacoustic, biogeographic, and ecological information provides us with a better understanding of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationship of studied groups of orthopterans (e.g. katydids from Palaearctic and eastern Africa [Fig. 4]) and hemipterans. These studies have been undertaken in collaboration with researchers from Bulgaria, Japan, Germany, Spain, and Russia.

Research was funded by the ISEA PAS and grants:

State Committee for Scientific Research; no 6 P04C 035 16; "The use of morphological and cytogenetic analysis to expain the problems of taxonomic and evolutionary selected groups of Orthoptera from East Asia" (PI: prof. dr sc. Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, investigator from Novosibirsk University, Russia, prof. Alexander Bugrov); 1999-2001.

State Committee for Scientific Research; no 2 P04C 088 26; "Genetic background of speciation: a case of the polytypical brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis Shir. (Insecta, Orthoptera)" (PI: prof. dr sc. Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, investigators from ISEA PAS prof. dr sc. Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska and Novosibirsk Stare University, Russia, prof. Alexander Bugrov); 2004-2007.

Ministry of Higher Education and Science; no N30301731/0639 "Genetic relationships among European species of the genus Philaenus (Aphrophoridae, Auchenorrhyncha, Hemiptera)" (PI prof. dr sc. Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska, investigators: dr Dorota Lachowska-Cierlik ISEA PAS; Zoological Institute, RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia, prof. Valentina G. Kuznetsova; Agricultural University, Athens, Greece, prof. Sakis Drosopoulos); 2006-2009.

Ministry of Higher Education and Science; no 303 2409 33; "Phylogeny of the genus Isophya (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) based on molecular data" (PI: prof. dr sc. Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, PhD grant for M.Sc. Beata Grzywacz); 2008-2009.

Ministry of Higher Education and Science; no 6117/B/P01/2010/38 and National Science Centre no. NN303611738 "Phylogenetic realtionships in the tribe Barbitistini (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropterinae) based on genetic studies" (PI: prof. dr sc. Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa, investigators from ISEA PAS dr Beata Grzywacz and Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, BAS, Bulgaria, dr Dragan Chobanov); 2010-2013.

Ministry of Higher Education and Science; no N N305 579839; "Phylogeography of spittlebug Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Aphrophoridae)" (PI: prof. dr sc. Anna Maryańska-Nadachowska, investigator from ISEA PAS dr Łukasz Kajtoch); 2010-2012.

National Science Centre; no 2011/01/B/NZ8/1467; "Phylogeny of the Palaearctic Tettigoniinae (Insecta: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) inferred by molecular, chromosomal, morphological and bioacoustic traits" (PI: dr Beata Grzywacz, investigator from ISEA PAS prof. dr sc. Elżbieta Warchałowska-Śliwa); 2011-2015.

Selected publications:

Hemp C., Grzywacz B., Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Hemp A. 2015. Topography and climatic fluctuations boosting speciation: biogeography and a molecular phylogeny of the East African genera Afroanthracites Hemp & Ingrisch and Afroagraecia Ingrisch & Hemp (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Conocephalinae, Agraeciini). Organisms Diversity and Evolution. doi: 10.1007/s13127-015-0244-4

Hemp C., Heller K.-G., Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Grzywacz B., Hemp A. 2015. Review of the Plangia graminea (Serville) complex and the description of new Plangia species from East Africa (Orthoptera: Phaneropteridae, Phaneropterinae) with data on habitat, bioacoustics, and chromosomes. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 15: 471-488.

Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Sanaie E., Kajtoch Ł. 2015. High genetic diversity in Southwest Asian populations of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha). Zoology of the Middle East 61 (3): 264-272.

Lis A., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Kajtoch Ł. 2015. Relations of Wolbachia infection with phylogeography of Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) populations within and beyond the Carpathian contact zone. Microbial Ecology 70: 509-521.

Grzywacz B., Chobanov D.P., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Karamysheva T.V., Heller K.-G., Warchałowska-Śliwa E. 2014. A comparative study of genome organization and inferences for the systematics of two large bushcricket genera of the tribe Barbitistini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 14: 48.

Grzywacz B., Heller K.-G., Lehmann A.W., Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Lehmann G.U.C. 2014. Chromosomal diversification in the flightless western mediterranen bushcricket genus Odontura (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) inferred from molecular data. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 52: 109-118.

Lis A., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Lachowska-Cierlik D., Kajtoch Ł. 2014. The Secondary Contact Zone of Phylogenetic Lineages of the Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae): An Example of Incomplete Allopatric Speciation. Journal of Insect Science 14(219) DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/ieu089

Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Grzywacz B., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Karamysheva T., Heller K.-G., Lehmann A.W., Lehmann G.U.C., Chobanov D.P. 2013. Molecular and classical chromosomal techniques reveal diversity in bushcricket genera of Barbitistini (Orthoptera). Genome 56: 667-676.

Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Grzywacz B., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Karamysheva T., Chobanov D. P., Heller K.-G. 2013. Cytogenetic variability among Bradyporinae species (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). European Journal of Entomology 110: 1-12.

Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Kuznetsova V. G., Karamysheva T.V. 2013. Chromosomal location of rDNA and TTAGG telomeric repeats in eight species of the spittlebug genus Philaenus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha:Aphrophoridae). European Journal of Entomology 110: 411-418.

Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Kajtoch Ł. Lachowska D. 2012. Genetic diversity of Philaenus spumarius and P. tesselatus (Hemiptera, Aphrophoridae): taxonomic implications for evaluation and taxonomy. Systematic Entomology 37: 55-64.

Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Kuznetsova V. G., Lachowska D., Drosopoulos S. 2012. Mediterranean species of the spittlebug genus Philaenus: modes of chromosome evolution. Journal of Insect Science 12, 54.

Grzywacz B., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Chobanov D. P., Karamysheva T., Warchałowska-Śliwa E. 2011. Comparative analysis of the location of rDNA in the Palaearctic bushcricket genus Isophya (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae). European Journal of Entomology 108: 509-517.

Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Grzywacz B., Karamysheva T., Lehmann A.W., Lehmann G.U.C., Heller K.-G. 2011. Changes in the numbers of chromosomes and sex determination system in bushcrickets of the genus Odontura (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae, Phaneropterinae). European Journal of Entomology 108: 183-195.

Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Drosopoulos S., Lachowska D., Kajtoch Ł., Kuznetsova V. G. 2010. Molecular phylogeny of the Mediterranean species of Philaenus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aphrophoridae) using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Systematic Entomology 35 (2): 318-328.

Kowalczyk M., Tatsuta H., Grzywacz B., Warchałowska-Śliwa E. 2008. Relationship between chromosomal races/subraces in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis Shiraki (Orthoptera: Acrididae) inferred from mitochondrial ND2 and COI gene sequences. Annals of Entomological Society of America 101: 837-844.

Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Tatsuta H., Akimoto S., Maryańska-Nadachowska A., Kowalczyk M., Bugrov A.G. 2008. Geographical patterns of chromosomal differentiation in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis Shiraki (Orthoptera: Acrididae). European Journal of Entomology 105: 185-196.

Bugrov A. G., Karamysheva T.V., Perepelov E., Elisaphenko E. A., Rubtsov D.N., Warchałowska-Śliwa E., Tatsuta H., Rubtsov N.B. 2007. DNA content of the B chromosomes in grasshopper Podisma kanoi Storozh. (Orthoptera, Acrididae). Chromosome Research 15: 315-325.

Tatsuta H., Hoshizaki S., Bugrov A.G., Warchalowska-Sliwa E., Tatsuki S., Akimoto S. 2006. Origin of chromosomal rearrangement: phylogenetic relationship between X0/XX and XY/XX chromosomal races in the brachypterous grasshopper Podisma sapporensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99: 457-462.